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Sociocultural Anthropology

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Biological Anthropology

Biological Anthropology

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“Anthropology is the most humanistic of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities.” - Alfred L Kroeber


The voyage of building an outrigger canoe: Harvesting a canoe log . . . or plywood

Part 1: Introduction and author bio

You may be surprised to learn—as I was—that most of the
Hawaiian gods associated with canoe building are forest gods. It makes sense
when you think about it. The canoe is a product of the forest, involving many
different plant materials, that then takes you out on the sea. In his excellent
book The Hawaiian Canoe (Editions
Limited, 1981), Tommy Holmes identifies about 20 different gods
and goddesses of the canoe
. Most of them are forms of Kū, god of the upper
forest (among other things), where the tree would come from. Some gods are
specific to certain parts of the canoe (like the seat braces), and some for the
dangerous task of getting the roughed-out log down from the heights (Holmes, p. 31).

Building a canoe was undertaken by a kahuna kālai wa‘a, a canoe-carving expert. The word kahuna refers to experts in all the arts
and sciences. This kahuna would
make offerings and pray before letting his dreams tell him whether it was
auspicious to go into the forest in search of a tree. If the signs were
positive, he and his team would provision themselves for the journey up into
the mountains, sometimes simply to find and mark a tree for later, other times
to fell the tree.

The tree of choice in the Hawaiian Islands is known as the koa
(Acacia koa). In Holmes’s description: “The
islands were blessed with extensive forests of what would come to be called koa,
trees of extraordinary size that were found nowhere else in the world. These
trees would provide wood of remarkable durability out of which the Hawaiian
would shape his canoes.”

Koa stand 05-08

Koa leaves 05-08

Left: A stand of young koa trees on the island of Hawai‘i. Above: Koa puts out small compound leaves at first, then the larger sickle-shaped leaves common to many acacia species. In Hawai‛i, you can tell you’re looking at koa when you see both on the same tree.















At the time of Cook’s visit in 1779, Lt. Charles Clerke
reported: “Some of our Explorers in the woods measured a tree 19 feet in
girth and rising very proportionably [sic] in its bulk to a great height, nor
did this far, if at all, exceed in stateliness many of its neighbours; we never
before met with this kind of wood” (Holmes, p. 17). 

Holmes goes on to point out that there was considerable
difference among koa stands and even from one tree to the next, and that canoe
builders had terms (he lists 21) for different types the builders identified (Holmes, p. 23).
Other woods used for canoes included wiliwili, kukui (candlenut), and ‘ulu
(breadfruit). Softer and lighter
than koa, these were used mostly for
small “play” or training canoes, and for women's canoes. Lighter woods were considered more vulnerable to the
occasional shark attack. A lot of
other woods and plant products are used in making the canoe, and I will get to
those in time. 

Now the prime koa forests were located between around 4000 and
6000 feet elevation, and Hawaiians lived pretty much at sea level. So it was a
journey of at least five miles, and perhaps as far as 25 miles, to get the tree.
And in pre–Captain Cook times, there were no draft animals to pull the log, so
it was all human labor. On lava rock. With bare feet.

Chasiempis sandwichensis ridgwayi

A female volcano 'elepaio, today the most common subspecies of Hawaiian 'elepaio. Photo by Eike Wulfmeyer, Keauhou Bird Conservation Center (KBCC), Volcano, Hawaii. Used with permission.

Once an apparently suitable tree was found, it was up to the
goddess Lea, in the form of an ‘elepaio bird (Chasiempis sandwichensis), to indicate the soundness of the
log. Martha Beckwith, in her book Hawaiian Mythology, writes: "When a canoe was to be built, a
priest would go to the forest, select a tree, and pray to the gods of the woods
to bless it, then wait for an ʻelepaio bird to alight on its trunk. If it
merely ran up and down, the trunk was sound; but where it stopped to pick at
the bark, that spot was sure to be found rotten and the builder would run a
risk in making use of the trunk" (Beckwith, p. 91). 

If the tree passed the bird test, then offerings were made at
the base of the tree to the gods, with prayers, a small black pig, coconut, red
fish, and ‘awa (piper methysticum), a
ceremonial beverage more commonly known as kava or kavakava. For a bigger and
more important canoe for a noted chief, a human sacrifice might be deemed
necessary. Then the kahuna kālai wa‘a would make one last prayer to his
personal guardian spirit (‘aumakua)
before making the first blow with his adze. In another post I’ll talk about the
stone tools used. For now, suffice it to say that it could take days to cut the
tree down.

No such elaborate effort or ritual in my case, though I am
careful to be respectful and speak kindly to my materials. For the Melanesia
canoe, I harvested two 4-by-8-foot sheets of quarter-inch marine plywood from
the folks at Chesapeake Light Craft in Annapolis, Maryland.
The guys there have been wonderfully helpful in giving me tips and information. No bird was involved. I just tied the sheets to the roof of a
Subaru Forester and hoped the wind didn’t rip them in half as I zoomed home up
the highway. The 60-mile, round-trip journey took about two hours all together.
I didn’t pack any provisions.

Plywood 04-08

Two 4-by-8-foot sheets of marine plywood will substitute for a koa tree. 

This plywood is mighty thin stuff. It’s made from okoumé or gaboon
), a tree grown sustainably in Gabon, Africa,
and known for its tall, straight trunks. Here is a picture of my “canoe log.” You will see that the two sheets are
laid end to end. This makes for
the 16-foot length of the canoe. I have already marked where to cut, but that
story comes in the next post.

I’m glad to have this material available and hope that the okoumé
farms in Africa truly do not come at the cost of native ecosystems. Unfortunately
for Hawai‘i, the great stands of koa trees were largely destroyed by human activity,
introduced cattle, and introduced pests. Finding a koa log large enough and of
good enough quality to carve a big canoe these days is almost impossible,
though smaller koa canoes are being made.

I have no elaborate ritual, but before we start carving, let
me give thanks to the trees who provided this wood, to the land that supported
them while they grew, and to the people who tended them. 

Next: Roughing out the hull

—Douglas Herman, NMAI 

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